A new Bible translation of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation, with many footnotes. Besides the new Bible translation, this page offers free download of many other free e-Books.
You can download the new Bible translation of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, and Revelation here, by clicking the link of your choice. The Microsoft Word .doc files are “ready to print” in format; i.e., they are double-columned, and even and odd guttered for double-sided photo-copying and velo-binding or spiral binding. If you prefer the Textus Receptus, there is also a growing Textus Receptus section later below.
Word for Windows Section to download new Bible translation:
(NOTE: for the Word documents, WordPad, might open them. Except Word Pad might not display the footnotes. You can download for free the Free Office suite software for Windows, Linux, and Android, free, by clicking here.)
The whole Bible, Word 2007 for Windows, .docx format, 2.8 MB. Updated 2017-03-27
PDF Section to download new Bible translation:
These documents are in PDF (Portable Document Format), readable by most all platforms- Windows, Macintosh and Linux. Besides cross-platform compatibility, another advantage to these is that you don’t have to download and install any fonts. To read these, you probably already have Adobe Acrobat Reader. To download these files, right-click the links, and then choose “save as” or “save link as.” I will from now on be putting most of my efforts into these PDF editions, since I don’t have to use as much time adding changes to all the various Word editions.
The whole Bible, PDF format; 8 MB. Updated 2017-03-27
Gospel of Matthew, PDF format, Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.6 MB. Updated 2015-08-21
Gospel of Matthew, PDF format; 1 MB. Updated 2015-08-21
Gospel of Mark, PDF format, Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.2 MB. Updated 2015-12-24
Gospel of Mark, PDF format; 875 KB. Updated 2015-12-24
Gospel of Luke, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 3.3 MB. Updated 2020-04-04
Gospel of Luke, PDF format; 965 KB. Updated 2020-04-04
Gospel of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 2.7 MB. Updated 2020-04-04
Gospel of John, PDF format; 2 MB. Updated April 4, 2020
Harmony of the Gospels – Palmer’s Diatessaron, PDF format; 1.5 MB.
The Epistle of James, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.5 MB. Updated 2016-06-04
First Epistle of Peter, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.8 MB. Updated 2016-08-04
Second Epistle of Peter, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.3 MB. Updated 2016-06-02
First Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 1.6 MB. Updated to NA28 2015-11-04
Second Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 211 KB. Updated to NA28 2015-11-08
Third Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; 221 KB. Updated to NA28 2015-11-10
The Epistle of Jude in 62 Greek manuscripts (Swanson style) and 12 critical editions. PDF format, 360 KB. Updated 2016-05-25
Revelation, PDF format, alternating verse by verse with the Greek text, with 513 footnotes; 3.2 MB. Updated March 27, 2017.
Revelation, PDF format, with the footnote textual variants in English, with 309 footnotes; 1.6 MB. Updated April 4, 2020.
Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation, My new Bible translation so far, 1,508 footnotes, PDF format, 437 pages, 6.5 MB. Updated April 04, 2020
For the individual books of the Bible, Macintosh computers can read the PDF documents above.
Robinson-Pierpont Majority Text Section
The whole Bible, PDF format; 8 MB. This file is gradually being conformed to the Byzantine majority text compiled by Robinson and Pierpont (RP). The books immediately below, are completely conformed in this Bible, and others are gradually being done. Updated 2016-10-11
The whole Bible, Word 2007 for Windows, .docx format, 2.8 MB. Updated 2016-10-11
The Gospel of John, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Robinson-Pierpont Greek text
The General Epistles, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Robinson-Pierpont Greek text of all the General Epistles, also known as the Catholic Epistles. This includes James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude. PDF 3.5 MB, 530 footnotes.
Third Epistle of Jude, in 62 Greek manuscripts (Swanson style) and 12 critical editions. PDF format, 360 KB; Updated 2016-06-01
The Apocalypse of John, the Greek text of Robinson-Pierpont alternating verse by verse with an English translation. PDF format, 3.7 MB, with 508 footnotes; Updated 2016-10-11
Textus Receptus Section
I recognize and accept, that many people believe the Textus Receptus is the accurate Greek text base for a translation of the New Testament. Therefore, I have begun making TR versions of the previous documents:
The whole Bible, PDF format; 8 MB. This file is gradually being conformed to the TR. The books immediately below, are certainly TR in this Bible, and others are gradually being done. Updated 2016-10-11
The whole Bible, Word 2007 for Windows, .docx format, 2.8 MB. Updated 2017-07-13
The Gospel of John, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Textus Receptus Greek text
The Epistle of James, PDF format; English Bible verses alternate with the Textus Receptus Greek text; 1.5 MB. Updated 2016-06-04
First Epistle of Peter, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; Updated 2016-06-02
Second Epistle of Peter, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text; Updated 2016-06-02
First Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text
Second Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text
Third Epistle of John, PDF format; Bible verses alternate with the Greek text
Third Epistle of Jude, in 62 Greek manuscripts (Swanson style) and 12 critical editions. PDF format, 360 KB; Updated 2016-06-01
The Apocalypse of John, the Textus Receptus Greek text alternating verse by verse with an English translation. PDF format, 3.7 MB, with 508 footnotes; Updated 2019-09-17.
Printed Edition Section
The Gospel of Mark, Printed edtion, an eclectic Greek text alternating verse by verse with a new English translation. Available on Amazon.
NEW: The General Epistles, English Bible verses translated from and alternating with the Robinson-Pierpont Greek text of all the General Epistles, also known as the Catholic Epistles. This includes James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude.
Download Other Free PDF Documents.
Aesop’s Fables, It’s a PDF, 200 KB
Allen & Greenough: New Latin Grammar
In PDF, 11.5 MB
Appolonius on Greek Grammar
On Adverbs, Connectives, Pronouns, Syntax; (in Greek) PDF, 4 MB
Appolonius, Dyscolus de Pronominibus
ed. Paulus Maas, (in Greek) PDF, 33 MB
Bennett, Charles E.: A Latin Grammar
In PDF, 7 MB
Bennett, Charles E.: A New Latin Composition
In PDF, 8.5 MB
Burkitt, F. Crawford: The Gospel History and its Transmission
Amended Complaint, against CNN et al, for defamation, providing evidence that the Seth Rich “Conspiracy Theory” is true.
To download Mr. Butowsky’s lawsuit regarding Seth Rich click here. And here is the original post about the Seth Rich conspiracy theory.
Calvin, John: Commentaries
In PDF, 1.5 MB
Charles, R. H.: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John
by R. H. Charles, D.Litt., D.D., In Two Volumes, Volume 1, 44 MB, PDF, Charles-Revelation-Vol-1.pdf
Charles, R. H.: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John
by R. H. Charles, D.Litt., D.D., In Two Volumes, Volume 2, 25 MB, PDF, Charles-Revelation-Vol-2.pdf
Cicero, Selected Orations
In Latin and English; PDF, 19.5 MB
Clement to the Corinthians A, B
(two epistles, Greek only), PDF, 114 KB Clement-To-Corinthians-1-and-2.pdf
Collar & Daniell, Beginner’s Latin Book
In PDF, 5 MB
Complutensian Polyglot, Old Testament
From 1520, PDF, 336 MB
Complutensian Polyglot, New Testament
From 1520, PDF, 164 MB
De Jonge: Erasmus and the Comma Johanneum
De Jonge, H. J.: Erasmus and the Comma Johanneum, PDF, 600 KB. Download De Jonge: Erasmus and the Comma Johanneum.
De Jonge, H. J.: Novum Testamentum A Nobis Versum
The Essence of Erasmus’ Edition of the New Testament, PDF, 1.2MB
The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles; critical Greek text showing variants from 9 ancient source mss. and 10 editions; compiled by David Robert Palmer, proofread by Nikolaos Adamou, PDF, 715KB
Download The Didache Greek text.
Didymus: De Trinitate
PDF, 1.5 MB. Download Didymus: De Trinitate.
Dostoevsky: The Brothers Karamazov
Dostoevsky, Fyodor: The Brothers Karamazov, PDF, 5 MB. Download Dostoevsky: The Brothers Karamazov.
D’Ooge, Benjamin L: Latin for Beginners
This is an HTML book with hyperlinks, zipped to 392 KB .zip file
D’Ooge, Benjamin L.: Key to “Latin for Beginners”
In PDF, 349 KB
208.5 MB. Download Erasmus: Quatuor-Evangelia.
Eusebius: Church History
Pdf in Greek only. Download Eusebius Church History.
Eusebius: Gospel Problems and Solutions
This PDF contains Eusebius’ Quaestiones ad Stephanum et Marinum. On page 113 is the famous passage where Eusebius of Caesarea provides us evidence that almost all copies of the Gospel of Mark at that time did not contain Mark 16:9-20. Download Eusebius Ad Marinum.
Giles: The Metamorphoses of Ovid, Books 1-4
Latin text with literal English translation interspersed, PDF, 7.5 MB
Goodspeed: Historical & Linguistic Studies
Edgar J. Goodspeed, Vol. 2, Greek Gospel Texts in America
It is volume two of “Historical and Linguistic Studies in Literature related to the New Testament.” Click here to download Goodspeed Historical & Linguistic Studies.
Goodwin, William W.: Greek Grammar
In PDF, 8.5 MB
Green, Samuel G.: A Brief Introduction to New Testament Greek
PDF, 3 MB
Grenfell and Hunt, the Hibeh Papyri Part 1
Edited with translations and notes. With Ten Plates.
“The papyri which form the subject of the present volume were obtained in the spring of 1902 from the Ptolemaic necropolis of El-Hibeh, partly by purchase, partly from our first excavations at that site, as is recorded in the Introduction. On p. 5 will be found an explanation of the remarkable fact that some of the literary papyri here edited belong to MSS. of which fragments were published by us in 1897. The papyri were, with one exception (no. 23), derived from mummy-cartonnage, and all belong to the third century B.C. …” Bernard P. Grenfell – Arthur S. Hunt.
Click here to download Grenfell & Hunt Hibeh Papyri.
Harris, J. Rendel: “Conflate Readings”
You can download “Conflate Readings” by J. Rendel Harris here.
Harvard Entrance Exam, 1869
Download pdf of the admissions exam in the year 1869 for Harvard College.
Hort “Notes on Select Readings”
Download pdf in which Fenton John Anthony Hort, D.D. discusses TC issues of the Pericope Adulterae, John 7:53 to end of chapter. Download Hort Pericope Adulterae
Hoskier, Herman C.: A Full Account and Collation of the Greek Cursive Codex Evangelium 604
With Two Facsimiles and Ten Appendices; PDF, 66 MB
Hutton, Jeremy M.: “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” in Text, Tradition and Geography
In PDF, 242 KB
(Note: I do not agree with some Ignatius doctrine, but these documents are useful for the study of patristic Greek.) Download here: Ignatius: 6 Epistles in Greek, to the Ephesians, Magnesians, Philadelphians, Romans, Smyrnians, & Trallians, PDF, 244 KB. Download the Ignatius Epistles.
Irenaeus Epistles re Polycarp and Florinus
Irenaeus: The Epistle Concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp, plus Epistle to Florinus, (in Greek), PDF, 92 KB. Download Irenaeus.
Jongkind: Introduction to the Tregelles Greek New Testament
From (2009) PDF, 319 KB
Krans Refutation of Holland
Krans, Jan: Refutation of Thomas Holland’s book, “Crowned With Glory,” especially re. Erasmus and the last six verses of Revelation.
Now downloadable here: Krans, Jan: Vid in the NA27. Download Krans, “vid” in the NA27.
Now downloadable here: Lake, Kirsopp: The Apostolic Fathers, Vol. 2
Includes the Shepherd of Hermas, the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Epistle to Diognetus; PDF, 16 MB. Download Lake Apostolic Fathers 2.
Now available for download: Lake, Kirsopp: The Text of the New Testament, PDF, 5 MB.
Download Lake Text of the New Testament.
Now available for download here: A Re-examination of Codex C
Lyon, Robert W.; “A Re-examination of Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus,” a doctoral thesis presented to the University of St. Andrews. PDF, 6 MB.
Download the Re-examination of Codex C-04 here.
Now available for download here: Miller Greek Testament Primer.
The full title is: Miller, Edward: A Greek Testament Primer, and Easy Grammar and Reading Book, Oxford, 1888, PDF, 3.5 MB. The Rev. Edward Miller, M.A. was an understudy of Burgon. The cover to this book says he was Rector of Bucknell. Download Miller.
Milton, John: Paradise Lost now available for download here.
John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) wrote this epic poem called Paradise Lost. Milton dictated the poem when he was blind. Though his poem was widely acclaimed, politics always entered the conversation. He also had unorthodox views on divorce and polygamy. This is a PDF, 1 MB in size.
Download Milton Paradise Lost.
Download The Nicene Creed in Greek and English.
Ottley, R. R., The Book of Isaiah, According to the Septuagint LXX
Volumes 1 & 2, (Greek & English & commentary) PDF, 56 MB is now downloadable here. Download Ottley Isaiah Septuagint LXX.
The Oxford TC Debate on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament
, @ New College, May 6, 1897, PDF, 162 MB. The participants discussed theories by Hort, Scrivener and Burgon. Prebendary Miller represented Burgon. The other participants besides Mr. Miller were Dr. Ince, Professor Sanday, G. H. Gwilliam, A. C. Headlam, Mr. Allen, and Mr. Bonus.
Download the Oxford TC Debate PDF.
Palmer, David Robert; The Didache; the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
A critical Greek text showing variants from 9 ancient source mss. and 10 editions; pdf, 715KB. This is Greek text only; I plan to release my own English translation sometime in the future.
Download the Didache Greek text.
Palmer, David Robert: Quick-Reference Greek Ligature Guide
Pearson Latin Prose Composition Based on Cicero
By Pearson, Henry Carr, PDF, 5 MB. Download Pearson Latin Prose Composition.
Pharr, Clyde: “Homeric Greek, a Book for Beginners.”
This is a PDF, 6.3 MB in size. Download Pharr Homeric Greek.
Plumley Coptic Grammar
– by John Martin Plumley; An Introductory Coptic Grammar (Sahidic) 1948, PDF, 850 KB. London Home & van Thal 1948; Photocopied at the Hebrew University Library, Jerusalem, 1988; Transcribed by George Somsel and Paterson Brown; revised IV.10
Download Plumley Coptic Grammar.
Polycarp Epistle to the Philippians, The Greek and Latin text alternating verse by verse with English
This is a PDF, 343 KB, and is now downloadable here. This is a very early Christian document, by the Overseer of Smyrna, the Martyr Polycarp. It is the Greek and Latin text alternating with the Greek and Latin text alternating verse by verse with an English translation. Also contains the Greek and Latin text alone afterward, plus two other English translations alone, by J. B. Lightfoot, and Kirsopp Lake. Download Polycarp Epistle to the Philippians.
“And these were more noble than those in Thessalonika, in that they searched the scriptures daily, to see whether those things were so.”
Robertson, A. T.: A Grammar of the Greek New Testament It is a PDF, 6.5 MB in size. Download Robertson Greek Grammar.
Robertson, A. T.: An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament,
PDF, 10.4 MB; now downloadable here. Download Robertson: Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament.
Robertson, A. T.: Studies in the Text of the New Testament, PDF, 8.6 MB
Now available for download. Download Robertson-Studies in the Text of the New Testament.
Robinson-Pierpont Greek Text of the New Testament, Byzantine text form
Now available for download here: Robinson, Maurice A., and Pierpont, William G.: The New Testament in the Original Greek, Byzantine Textform (2018); with NA28 variant readings within the text (NA29 in Acts), and with Appendix, PDF, 13 MB, 610 pages. Download Robinson-Pierpont NT PDF. The Appendix by Maurice A. Robinson is entitled: The Case for Byzantine Priority.
A stripped down 2018 edition, with no variants or Appendix, and with minimal formatting, is also available: 9 MB PDF, 453 pages. Robinson-Pierpont 2018 GNT, No Variants.
Also available, for textual criticism experimentation, is an all-majuscule / uncial edition. That was the PDF link; you can also download a Microsoft Word “.docx” edition of the Robinson-Pierpont 2018 Greek New Testament in all majuscule.
Rutherford, W. Gunion: First Greek Grammar- Accidence; PDF, 4 MB; First Greek Grammar- Syntax, PDF, 5.5 MB
Scrivener, F.H.A.: A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament, PDF, 8.5 MB
Scrivener, F.H.A.: An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis, & A Full Collation of 50 Manuscripts, PDF, 31 MB now available for download.
Download Scrivener Codex Augiensis transcript.
Scrivener, F.H.A.: A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. 2
PDF, 12 MB – Versions, Editions, Greek dialects, Select Passages. Download Scrivener Plain Introduction Vol. 2.
Scrivener, F.H.A.: A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, Vol. 1
PDF, 32 MB, now available for download.
An image of Scrivener from the book A Plain Introduction Vol 1., free download.
Collation of Textus Receptus editions now available for download: Scrivener, F. H. A.: Appendix B: Collation of all editions of the so-called Textus Receptus (in a Hoskier work). Click here.
Many people like to do a Bible Study pertaining to the underlying Greek Text that is used in the older Bibles compared to a new Bible.
This is a collation of Textus Receptus editions their differences, PDF, 1 MB. This document shows all the differences between Robert Stephens’ editions, Erasmus’ 5 editions (especially 1550), Elzevir 1624, and editions of Beza, Aldus, Colinaeus. These all are called the “Textus Receptus” or “Received Text.” By the term “Textus Receptus” is meant these various Greek New Testament editions from which the translators of the Geneva Bible, the Bishops’ Bible, the Great Bible, and the King James Bible, translated, to make their English translations of the Bible. Download here. This is what we mean by the Textus Receptus.
Smith, William: A First Greek Course, containing accidence, syntax, exercises for lower grades, PDF, 7.5 MB
Smyth, Herbert W.: Greek Grammar for Colleges, PDF, 16 MB
Sophocles, E. A.: A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, PDF, 69 MB.
Souter, Alexander: A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, PDF, 7.5 MB
Tregelles, Samuel P.: Greek New Testament, version 2, corrected, ed. Dirk Jongkind et al., PDF, 3 MB
Stephens, Greek New Testament, 1550, PDF, 2.5 MB
Tyndale, William, New Testament, PDF, 1.7 MB
Download Tyndale NT.
Wilson, Richard: UBS – Byzantine text differences;
1.1 MB PDF listing all differences in the text. Download.
Von Soden, Hermann F.: Greek New Testament, Part 1, Investigation, PDF, 57 MB
Von Soden, Hermann; Greek New Testament, Part 2, The Textual Evidence -Classifications & Text Types of the NT Manuscripts, PDF, 340 MB
Von Soden, Hermann; Greek New Testament, Part 3, the Text with Apparatus, PDF, 183 MB
was a mammoth work compiled by Brian Walton, consisting of the Bible in Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Chaldean, Samaritan, Greek, Arabic, Ethiopic, Latin, plus variant readings of Codices Alexandrinus and Vaticanus, in 1657!
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 1, Prolegomena & Variant Readings, PDF, 185 MB
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 2, Genesis – LeviticusA, PDF, 100 MB
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 3, LeviticusB – JudgesA, PDF, 101 MB
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 4, JudgesB – IV KingsA, PDF
99 MB Download by right clicking here.
Walton’s Polyglot Part 5; IV KingsB – PsalmsA, PDF, 92 MB
Download by right-clicking here and choose “save as.”
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 6
PsalmsB – JeremiahA, PDF, 115 MB. Download here.
Walton’s Polyglot, Part 7
JeremiahB – EcclesiasticusA, PDF, 112 MB, download by right-clicking here.
Walton’s Polyglot Part 8
Contains EcclesiasticusB – Maccabees, PDF, 102 MB; download by right-clicking here, and choose “save as,” or “save link as.”
Walton’s Polyglot Part 9
Containing Numbers, Deuteronomy and most of the gospels, is now downloadable. Right-click here and choose “save as” or “save link as.”
Part 10 of Walton’s Polyglot
Contains Gospel of JohnB, Acts, Paul, Catholic Epistles, Revelation, PDF, 107 MB. Right click here to download.
White, John W.:
First Greek Book, Alphabet, Paradigms, Syntax, Verb Parts, Word Grouping, Vocab, PDF, 5.2 MB
White & Morgan:
An Illustrated Dictionary to Xenophon’s Anabasis, PDF, 14 MB.
Whitney, S. W.: The Revisers’ Greek Text, Vols. 1 & 2, PDF, 18 MB
Winnemucca, Sarah: Life Among the Piutes
Sarah Winnemucca was the first native American woman to write a book in English. In her book, Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, she describes her childhood, her clan’s first meeting with whites, her education in English, and her becoming a go-between between her people and the United States government. I highly recommend this book. I am sure you will find it interesting. PDF, 1.6 MB
Adv.: Instant King James Bible download, including app for iPhone, with 5 bonuses.
Have you ever noticed, that while engaged in your Bible study, when you consult many commentaries, that they all seem to have some of the same answers, or seem afraid to break the mold? They don’t even comment on so many of the Bible verses you want to study. This new Bible translation has footnotes that are unique, and original thinking. For example, in many Bible verses, especially in the Gospel of Luke, there are verbs that are “continuous aspect.” These Bible verses make no sense unless you understand them that way. I translate those Bible verses as continuous in English, and have footnotes and end notes explaing why. This is an example of what I mean when I say these documents will make a unique Bible study for you. Download these new Bible translations for a unique Bible study.
Someone commented on the fact that I apparently think that present tense in the verbs means “continuous.” One man in Illinois said, “Show me just one authority on New Testament Greek, that says this is so.” (I don’t think he considered me remotely qualified to make a new Bible translation. He also did not notice many Bible verses where this is clearly taking place.) So, here are some lessons in N.T. Greek verb tenses, from two authorities that do say this is so.
The first is from A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, by F. Blass and A. DeBrunner, A translation and revision of the ninth-tenth German edition, incorporating supplementary notes of A. DeBrunner, by Robert W. Funk, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London (1961). This is one of the top two or three advanced grammars of New Testament Greek. You won’t find a higher authority than this. In my footnotes in my new Bible translation, I refer to it as “BDF” for Blass-DeBrunner-Funk. Here is what they have to say about the Greek tenses, in Section 318, in pertinent part.
**COPYRIGHT NOTICE** In accordance with Title 17 U. S. C. Section 107, any copyrighted work in this page is distributed under fair use without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for nonprofit research and educational purposes only. [ Ref. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml]
318 Introduction The original function of the so-called tense stems of the verb in Indo-European languages was not that of levels of time (present, past, future) but that of Aktionsarten (kinds of action) or aspects (points of view). Cf. Hebrew. Past time (past from the standpoint of the speaker or narrator) was designated within the several tense stems by a prefixed, originally independent (but not obligatory) particle, the so-called augment.
The old and common temporal significance (contemporary time) assigned to the unaugmented indicative (present, perfect) grew out of the contrast to augmented forms. In Greek the temporal significance of the corresponding indicatives has been carried over to a much smaller degree to the moods (subjunctive and optative, also the the infinitive and participle), and then it is, of course, so-called relative time, i.e. the temporal relationship is determined by something else appearing in the speech or narrative…
The most important kinds of action (Aktionsarten) retained in Greek (including the NT) are the following:
(1) The punctiliar (momentary) in the aorist stem: the action is conceived as a point with either the beginning or the end of the action emphasized (ingressive and effective aorist): ebasileusen ‘became king’, ebalen ‘hit’), or the action is conceived as a whole irrespective of its duration (constative or complexive aorist: epoihsen ‘he made it’).
(2) The durative (linear or progressive) in the present stem: the action is represented as durative (in progress) and either as timeless (
estin o qeoV) or as taking place in present time (including, of course, duration on one side or the other of the present moment: grafw ‘I am writing [now]’…
(3) The present stem may also be iterative:
eballen ‘threw repeatedly’ (or ‘each time’)…
327. Imperfect used to portray the manner of the action, i.e. a past action is represented as being in progress…
Edward W. Goodrick in his “Do It Yourself Hebrew and Greek,” Multnomah Press, (1976) has made a nice and simple chart or paradigm on page 4:13 showing the eight tenses of N.T. Greek verbs (Aorist, Imperfect, Pluperfect, Present, Perfect, Future, Periphrastic Future, Future Perfect), and then a nice list of the six question you must ask of a N.T. Greek verb: (1) What is its Person? Options: First Person, or Second Person, or Third Person. (2) What is its Number? Options: Singular or Plural. (3) What is its Voice? Options: Active Voice, or Middle Voice, or Passive Voice. (4) What is its Aspect? Options: Punctiliar Aspect, or Linear Aspect, or Combined Aspect. (5) What is its Mood? Options: Indicative Mood, or Subjunctive Mood, or Imperative Mood, or Optative Mood. (6) AND ONLY IF YOUR ANSWER TO QUESTION FIVE IS “INDICATIVE MOOD” CAN YOU ASK THE SIXTH QUESTION, “What is its Time? Options: Past Time, or Present Time, or Future Time.
This latter, the 6th Question and its rule, is one that throws many English speakers off. It is hard to get it into heads, that the MAJORITY of N.T. Greek verbs DO NOT TELL TIME in the sense of past, present or future. And since participles and infinitives are not in the Indicative Mood, their Time, if any at all, is relative; that is, it must be gleaned from their context.
The most important semantic content of a N.T. Greek verb, other than its lexical meaning, is its ASPECT, the “kind of action,” that is, whether Punctiliar, Continous, or Combined. This is true even when in the indicative mood. The two main tenses having “Continuous Aspect” are the Present and the Imperfect. The Imperfect tense is the verbs with past time and continuous aspect. I handled the Imperfect three ways: the Continuous or Progressive I rendered as “He was walking.” The “Iterative” and/or “habitual” imperfect I rendered “He would walk.” And the third way, when it was most agreeable to the context and/or the rhythm required, just a simple past, “He walked.”
There are some Bible verses that simply do not make sense unless you make the imperfect-tense verbs incompleted action. One obvious one is Luke 22:2. The entire emphasis of the verb “fearing” is that it was ongoing and incomplete. (This is what the word “imperfect” means, after all!)
On March 08, 2000, Richard Robinett wrote: Brother Dave, I took a quick look at your new Bible translation. Can I access that from your web site the same as you have it in your reply to me? If not I will make an effort to save it. Also, are you going to be publishing this, or is it just for download? I am a bi-focal wearer and reading anything of length on the screen can begin to get to my neck. (You have to tilt your head as you read up and down the screen.) I will want this to read at my leisure at some future date. I am currently reading God’s Word, which is a dynamic equivalent translation. When I finish it, I think that I would like to read your work. I like your translation style and was impressed with what I learned from reading your notes. Keep up the good work.
It always puzzles me that translation commentaries warn against the work of individual translators. Yet so far I have enjoyed the work of Taylor, Phillips and Peterson very much. I recognize that their works are not perfect, but which translation is? There are personal biases expressed in their works, but can’t committees have a bias? I feel that these three have taken a chance, tried to make the Bible understandable to a dummy like me, and have put some of their own love for Scripture into their work. That can be missing in a committee effort where the majority rules and one individuals passion for what a particular passage says can be overruled.
I can see that you are trying for a more form equivalent translation, but that you are trying to make it readable and conform to modern English usage. What I read impressed me and I look forward reading your work in total. If you are going to publish, I will want to buy a copy. If not, I will make arrangements to print out a copy with your permission. Yours truly Richard Robinett
Answer by David Palmer: Richard, you don’t seem like a dummy to me. Yes, I plan to publish these, but in the form of a harmony of the gospels. These are the base translations, which will be smoothed over a little in the harmonized form. Yes, simple-English translations are just what some people need. I think everyone should have a King James Version, a New American Standard Bible, a New International Version, and a simple-English translation like God’s Word. And mine, of course.
Yes, I also am puzzled by the bias against individuals. It must be the principle, “In the multitude of counselors there is safety.” Such a mentality also warns against individual translations, because of the existence of individual “idiosyncrasies.” Yet, the original works themselves were all done by individuals, and in the example of the four gospels, we have the same story told but with four individuals’ idiosyncrasies! God himself must not subscribe to this bias against the individual. I notice also that he gave revelations to individuals such as Isaiah and John, and not to a committee. And I agree, that committees don’t avoid bias. Committees come with their particular drawbacks. One of the weaknesses of translations done by a committee is that they are too deferential to tradition. Yes, you and everyone else have my permission to print my new Bible translations, or to publish them, or to re-format them. You can get a printed edition of my new Bible translation as it is so far, for just the printing cost, here.
This web page offers the translations of David Robert Palmer.