Category Archives: Textual Criticism

αὐτοῦ versus ἑαυτοῦ in Luke’s Gospel

I am now fully annoyed by the recurring variant in the gospel of Luke between αὐτοῦ and ἑαυτοῦ.  The UBS and RP texts alternate sides back and forth.

The latest is Luke 15:5, ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους ἑαυτοῦ (BYZ) or ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους αὐτοῦ (UBS).  He places it upon his shoulders.  The KJV does not render this “his OWN shoulders” as do some recent translations of the BYZ text.  There is no real reason to.

15:26 πατέρα ἑαυτοῦ v. πατέρα αὐτοῦ (BYZ)
Again, there is no reason to render this “his OWN father.”

14:27 σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ (UBS) v. σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ (BYZ)
His OWN cross v his cross, this one may be meaningful.

15:20 πατέρα ἑαυτοῦ (UBS) vs πατέρα αὐτοῦ (BYZ)

Complicating this, and perhaps explaining the rise of this, is the contraction of ἑαυτοῦ which is αὑτοῦ. Note the rough breathing mark, which is the only thing that distinguishes it from αὐτοῦ.  The early papyri and uncials may not show this, so they could read either way.

Good Samaritan Variant

In the Parable of the Good Samaritan in the gospel of Luke, chapter 10 verse 30, the Majority Text contains an additional word, τυγχάνειν , which the KJV and other Majority Text translations do not translate.

10:30 txt ἡμιθανῆ ?⁴⁵ ?⁷⁵ ℵ B D L Θ Ξ ƒ¹ 22 33 579 700 1241 TH NA28 {/} ἡμιθανῆ τυγχάνοντα A C E G H K M N S U X W Y Γ Δ Λ Π Ψ 070 ƒ¹³ 2 28 157 565 892 1071 1342 1424 2542 ? TR RP ‖lac F P Q T.

The BDAG lexicon says this ? reading means “leaving him for half dead, as indeed he was.”  The BDF grammar §414(1) glosses the word τυγχάνειν as “happen to be.”  Thus: the bandits supposed that he was half dead without knowing for sure, but it so happens that he was indeed half dead.

This footnote has been added to my translation of the Gospel of Luke:

Third John Verse 15

Did you know that the Westcott & Hort, Antoniades, SBL, UBS5, NA28, ECM, and Tyndale House Greek New Testament editions have a verse number 15 in the Third Epistle of John? The TR, Pickering and Robinson-Pierpont editions do not have a v. 15, but have a longer v. 14. I like having a verse 15, because, for example, in my footnotes to the Byz edition, I have to have 6 footnotes on v. 14, numbered 14a to 14g, whereas with a verse 15 it is not so crazy. I am finalizing my soon to be published book, the General Epistles with the Robinson-Pierpont as the base text, and found quite a few errors in my existing documents, but am also adding the readings of the Antoniades, the Pickering, and the Tyndale House editions, for a total of 7 editions cited in every footnote: TR (and sometimes split editions), Antoniades, BG (Pickering), RP, SBL, TH (Tyndale House) and NA28. News about my printed editions can be found here:

Jude Verse 19

One of the more significant Greek textual variants in the Epistle of Jude is between the Textus Receptus underlying the KJV, versus most other Greek New Testament editions. The KJV says those who separate themselves, and the newer translations say something like those who cause divisions.

Jd 19a txt αποδιοριζοντες ?⁷² ℵ A B K L P Ψ 049 056 0142 0316 18 33 35c 81 93 307 442 665 1241 1739* 1852 2344 latt cop syr arm Cyr Did PsOec TR-Steph Eras Scriv-1887 TG TH WH AT VS HF BG RP TW SBL NA28 αποδιοριζοντες εαυτους C 5 6 35* 323 621 915 1243 1611 1739c 2298 2805 geo TR-Scriv-1894 Col. Beza Elz. ‖ hiant ?⁷⁸ 0251

It is perplexing to me why King James Onlyists like Stephanus’ 1550 TR text, when that is not the text followed by the KJV. Scrivener made his 1894 edition of the Greek New Testament precisely to show the Greek text underlying the KJV.

Variant Acts 20.4-5

Acts 20:4-5, NKJV:

(4) And Sopater of Berea accompanied him to Asia—also Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians, and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia.  (5) These men, going ahead, waited for us at Troas.  [While Paul and Luke went through Macedonia]

One immediately sees a problem with this text.  Verse 4 contradicts verse 5 and vice versa.  If they went on ahead of him to Troas (the landing port in Asia) then they did NOT accompany him αχρι – as far as Asia.

Ah, but the NA28 text does not contain the words αχρι της ασιας “as far as Asia.”

Also, the NA29 text has “δε” before “went on ahead.”  And there too, with the verb, is another variant.

20:4 txt omit ?⁷⁴ ℵ B 33 vg cop eth Or-Lat(V) NA29 αχρι της ασιας A (D μεχρι) E H L P Ψ 049 056 1175 1611 1739 1891 2464 it syr Chrys TR RP lac ?⁴¹ C

20:5 txt προσελθοντες δε ℵ A B* E Ψ 1735 1739 2464 TG SBL NA29 προελθοντες δε ?⁷⁴ B² 33 1611 1891 syr-h cop-sa,bo TD NA28 προσελθοντες H L P 049 056 1175 RP προελθοντες D latt syr-p Chrys TR AT BG lac ?⁴¹ C

The NA text makes more sense: these men accompanied him, δε, “however,” or, “except that” they went on ahead of him to Troas.

Luke 2;15 Textual Variant

Luke 2:15a txt οἱ ποιμένες ℵ B L W Θ Ξ 1 565 700 1071 1582* it-a,aur,b,β,e,f,ff²,l,r¹ vg syr-s,p,pal copsa,bo arm geo Or-lat Eus NA28 ‖ καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες A D E F G H K M P S U Y Γ Δ Λ Ψ Ω 053 ƒ¹³ 2 28 33 118 157 892 1009 1010 1079 1195 1216 1230 1241 1242 1344 1424 1546 1582c 2148 2174 ? Lect-m it-(e),d,q syr-h Diatess-a,n,t TR RP ‖ καὶ οἱ ποιμένες 579 1365 ‖ lac ?⁴⁵ ?⁷⁵ C N Q T Π

This variant was footnoted with a [D] rating of certainty in the UBS3, and now in the UBS5 is not footnoted at all.

The Byzantine text presents an odd style, which the UBS commentary says is Lukan.  The biggest difficulty with the Byz reading is the word και.  Most of the translations from the Byz text translate και as “that,” (a Semitism?) while the KJV did not translate it at all.  The other major difference is the addition of οι ανθρωποι.  The main translations treat οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες as a pleonasm and translate it simply as “the shepherds.”  This latter is indeed Lukan style.  But και as “that,” not so much Lukan style.  I’ve seen it in John.

First the UBS text and translation:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, οἱ ποιμένες ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους

DRP: And it came about that when the angels had departed from them into heaven, the shepherds were saying to one another

Now the Byz text and some translations thereof:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες εἶπον πρὸς ἀλλήλους

MLV: And it happened, as the messengers went away from them into heaven, and the men, the shepherds, said to one another,

ALT: And it happened, when the angels departed from them into heaven, that the men, the shepherds, said to one another

Geneva: And it came to passe whe the Angels were gone away from them into heauen, that the shepheards sayde one to another,

EMTV: So it was, when the angels had departed from them into heaven, that the shepherds said to one another,

KJV: And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another,

Download the Luke document containing this data in a footnote.

Majuscule Uncial Robinson-Pierpont GNT

Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Greek New Testament in Majuscule / Uncial script

I have created and uploaded an edition of the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Greek New Testament, Byzantine Textform, in all-majuscule letters (some say uncial letters).  This document is available for download in both “.docx” format and in PDF.  The PDF is 1.7 MB, 567 pages.

This document was created by David Robert Palmer to be a public domain document, in both “.docx” format and in PDF.  The Robinson-Pierpont Greek text is also free to use without permission.  For this document, I give you permission to to copy, paste, and / or re-format as you wish.  Only except that these documents are “locked” against changes in order to preserve the original formatting, and I ask that you leave them locked.  This means that if you want to edit or re-format the Microsoft® Word 2007 “.docx” document of the RP majuscule text, you can do so, but you will have to first “save as” a copy to your hard drive under another file name; in which copy you can then make changes.  Proper display of the “.docx” document may require that you install the KoineGreek.ttf font from Alan Bunning; the documents contain a download link for that font on the cover page.  This font was chosen because it renders the Greek majuscule / uncial letter Sigma as C, which is what is found in the early Greek New Testament manuscripts.  Be advised that the KoineGreek.ttf font renders a regular lower case letter into a capital Greek letter automatically.  If you wish to use some other font, you can do that, but you will probably first have to convert the base letters to upper case.

Nomina Sacra are used for the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and vocative of κυριος, and the nom., acc. gen., dat. of θεος, Ἰησους, χριστος, and πνευμα..  It is possible that when the find/replace operations for these NS were conducted, some other word was accidentally changed which happened to contain these words.  This happened with vocative κυριε for example, but I believe I found them all and corrected them.

Download links (free) for the two documents: The PDF of the 2017 RP uncial text.  The Microsoft® Word 2007 “.docx” file of the Robinson-Pierpont majuscule text.

Robinson-Pierpont Greek New Testament, Byzantine textform in Uncial / Majuscule script

Robinson-Pierpont GNT in Majuscule


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Majuscule Epistle of Jude

The Epistle of Jude in Majuscule

I have just created and uploaded the Epistle of Jude in majuscule font, similar to what New Testament manuscripts looked like in the 3rd century.  The Greek New Testament text is the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 text.  Thanks to Alan Bunning for the KoineGreek majuscule font.

If you are particularly interested in the Epistle of Jude, see also my Swanson-style chart of the Epistle of Jude in 62 manuscripts and 12 GNT editions.

Epistle of Jude in majuscule

The Epistle of Jude in majuscule

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