Category Archives: Textual Criticism

Dative Case Marker Words

Modern Greek differs from New Testament Greek in many ways, and one of the biggest differences is that there are no longer any Dative Case inflections or suffixes on words like there were in Koine Greek. Instead, marker words or helper words came to be used.

See for example Luke 21:23 txt τω λαω ℵ A B C D K L M N Π Ψ ƒ¹ ƒ¹³ 33 157 579 892 1241 2542 lat SBL TH ΝΑ28 {\} εν τω λαω E G H S U W Y Γ Δ Θ Λ Ω 2 124 346 565 700 1071 𝔐 syr-h TR RP επι τω λαω 1424 vg: ira populo huic (KJV) ‖ lac 𝔓⁴⁵ 𝔓⁷⁵ F P Q T 28.

Some recent translations of the Majority text render this “wrath among this people.” I disagree with that, and I render both the NA28 and Majority texts the same way.

So also, where the same construction is found in Romans 16:7, ἐπίσημοι ἐν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις, it should be rendered “who are well known to the apostles, and were in Christ before me.”

New Upload RP General Epistles

New Upload Byzantine General Epistles

I have uploaded a new PDF document, containing the General Epistles of the New Testament. It has the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Byzantine Majority Text alternating verse by verse with my new English translation. PDF 3.5 MB, 530 footnotes.

The footnotes contain not only translator’s notes, but extensive notes covering the Greek manuscript variants, including the readings of the following seven (7) Greek New Testament editions: the Textus Receptus, Scrivener 1894 Ed.; Antoniades 1904; Byzantine Greek New Testament (Wilbur Pickering’s Family 35 text); the NA28; the SBL; the Robinson-Pierpont 2017, and the Tyndale House Greek New Testament (2017). Shown in this post is a screen capture of one of the footnotes.

This document has replaced the individual PDF files of those books James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude that had the Robinson-Pierpont Greek text with them.

To download the new General Epistles Byzantine PDF click the link in this sentence.
A printed edition is also available, and possibly a free Kindle edition.

A footnote in this Robinson-Pierpont General Epistles document

Please share this post about the Robinson-Pierpont General Epistles.

αὐτοῦ versus ἑαυτοῦ in Luke’s Gospel

I am now fully annoyed by the recurring variant in the gospel of Luke between αὐτοῦ and ἑαυτοῦ.  The UBS and RP texts alternate sides back and forth.

The latest is Luke 15:5, ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους ἑαυτοῦ (BYZ) or ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους αὐτοῦ (UBS).  He places it upon his shoulders.  The KJV does not render this “his OWN shoulders” as do some recent translations of the BYZ text.  There is no real reason to.

15:26 πατέρα ἑαυτοῦ v. πατέρα αὐτοῦ (BYZ)
Again, there is no reason to render this “his OWN father.”

14:27 σταυρὸν ἑαυτοῦ (UBS) v. σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ (BYZ)
His OWN cross v his cross, this one may be meaningful.

15:20 πατέρα ἑαυτοῦ (UBS) vs πατέρα αὐτοῦ (BYZ)

Complicating this, and perhaps explaining the rise of this, is the contraction of ἑαυτοῦ which is αὑτοῦ. Note the rough breathing mark, which is the only thing that distinguishes it from αὐτοῦ.  The early papyri and uncials may not show this, so they could read either way.

Good Samaritan Variant

In the Parable of the Good Samaritan in the gospel of Luke, chapter 10 verse 30, the Majority Text contains an additional word, τυγχάνειν , which the KJV and other Majority Text translations do not translate.

10:30 txt ἡμιθανῆ ?⁴⁵ ?⁷⁵ ℵ B D L Θ Ξ ƒ¹ 22 33 579 700 1241 TH NA28 {/} ἡμιθανῆ τυγχάνοντα A C E G H K M N S U X W Y Γ Δ Λ Π Ψ 070 ƒ¹³ 2 28 157 565 892 1071 1342 1424 2542 ? TR RP ‖lac F P Q T.

The BDAG lexicon says this ? reading means “leaving him for half dead, as indeed he was.”  The BDF grammar §414(1) glosses the word τυγχάνειν as “happen to be.”  Thus: the bandits supposed that he was half dead without knowing for sure, but it so happens that he was indeed half dead.

This footnote has been added to my translation of the Gospel of Luke:
http://bibletranslation.ws/trans/lukewgrk.pdf

Third John Verse 15

Did you know that the Westcott & Hort, Antoniades, SBL, UBS5, NA28, ECM, and Tyndale House Greek New Testament editions have a verse number 15 in the Third Epistle of John? The TR, Pickering and Robinson-Pierpont editions do not have a v. 15, but have a longer v. 14. I like having a verse 15, because, for example, in my footnotes to the Byz edition, I have to have 6 footnotes on v. 14, numbered 14a to 14g, whereas with a verse 15 it is not so crazy. I am finalizing my soon to be published book, the General Epistles with the Robinson-Pierpont as the base text, and found quite a few errors in my existing documents, but am also adding the readings of the Antoniades, the Pickering, and the Tyndale House editions, for a total of 7 editions cited in every footnote: TR (and sometimes split editions), Antoniades, BG (Pickering), RP, SBL, TH (Tyndale House) and NA28. News about my printed editions can be found here: http://bit.ly/PrintPostWS

Jude Verse 19

One of the more significant Greek textual variants in the Epistle of Jude is between the Textus Receptus underlying the KJV, versus most other Greek New Testament editions. The KJV says those who separate themselves, and the newer translations say something like those who cause divisions.

Jd 19a txt αποδιοριζοντες ?⁷² ℵ A B K L P Ψ 049 056 0142 0316 18 33 35c 81 93 307 442 665 1241 1739* 1852 2344 latt cop syr arm Cyr Did PsOec TR-Steph Eras Scriv-1887 TG TH WH AT VS HF BG RP TW SBL NA28 αποδιοριζοντες εαυτους C 5 6 35* 323 621 915 1243 1611 1739c 2298 2805 geo TR-Scriv-1894 Col. Beza Elz. ‖ hiant ?⁷⁸ 0251

It is perplexing to me why King James Onlyists like Stephanus’ 1550 TR text, when that is not the text followed by the KJV. Scrivener made his 1894 edition of the Greek New Testament precisely to show the Greek text underlying the KJV.

Variant Acts 20.4-5

Acts 20:4-5, NKJV:

(4) And Sopater of Berea accompanied him to Asia—also Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians, and Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, and Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia.  (5) These men, going ahead, waited for us at Troas.  [While Paul and Luke went through Macedonia]

One immediately sees a problem with this text.  Verse 4 contradicts verse 5 and vice versa.  If they went on ahead of him to Troas (the landing port in Asia) then they did NOT accompany him αχρι – as far as Asia.

Ah, but the NA28 text does not contain the words αχρι της ασιας “as far as Asia.”

Also, the NA29 text has “δε” before “went on ahead.”  And there too, with the verb, is another variant.

20:4 txt omit ?⁷⁴ ℵ B 33 vg cop eth Or-Lat(V) NA29 αχρι της ασιας A (D μεχρι) E H L P Ψ 049 056 1175 1611 1739 1891 2464 it syr Chrys TR RP lac ?⁴¹ C

20:5 txt προσελθοντες δε ℵ A B* E Ψ 1735 1739 2464 TG SBL NA29 προελθοντες δε ?⁷⁴ B² 33 1611 1891 syr-h cop-sa,bo TD NA28 προσελθοντες H L P 049 056 1175 RP προελθοντες D latt syr-p Chrys TR AT BG lac ?⁴¹ C

The NA text makes more sense: these men accompanied him, δε, “however,” or, “except that” they went on ahead of him to Troas.

Luke 2;15 Textual Variant

Luke 2:15a txt οἱ ποιμένες ℵ B L W Θ Ξ 1 565 700 1071 1582* it-a,aur,b,β,e,f,ff²,l,r¹ vg syr-s,p,pal copsa,bo arm geo Or-lat Eus NA28 ‖ καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες A D E F G H K M P S U Y Γ Δ Λ Ψ Ω 053 ƒ¹³ 2 28 33 118 157 892 1009 1010 1079 1195 1216 1230 1241 1242 1344 1424 1546 1582c 2148 2174 ? Lect-m it-(e),d,q syr-h Diatess-a,n,t TR RP ‖ καὶ οἱ ποιμένες 579 1365 ‖ lac ?⁴⁵ ?⁷⁵ C N Q T Π

This variant was footnoted with a [D] rating of certainty in the UBS3, and now in the UBS5 is not footnoted at all.

The Byzantine text presents an odd style, which the UBS commentary says is Lukan.  The biggest difficulty with the Byz reading is the word και.  Most of the translations from the Byz text translate και as “that,” (a Semitism?) while the KJV did not translate it at all.  The other major difference is the addition of οι ανθρωποι.  The main translations treat οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες as a pleonasm and translate it simply as “the shepherds.”  This latter is indeed Lukan style.  But και as “that,” not so much Lukan style.  I’ve seen it in John.

First the UBS text and translation:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, οἱ ποιμένες ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους

DRP: And it came about that when the angels had departed from them into heaven, the shepherds were saying to one another

Now the Byz text and some translations thereof:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες εἶπον πρὸς ἀλλήλους

MLV: And it happened, as the messengers went away from them into heaven, and the men, the shepherds, said to one another,

ALT: And it happened, when the angels departed from them into heaven, that the men, the shepherds, said to one another

Geneva: And it came to passe whe the Angels were gone away from them into heauen, that the shepheards sayde one to another,

EMTV: So it was, when the angels had departed from them into heaven, that the shepherds said to one another,

KJV: And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another,

Download the Luke document containing this data in a footnote.