Luke 2;15 Textual Variant

Luke 2:15a txt οἱ ποιμένες ℵ B L W Θ Ξ 1 565 700 1071 1582* it-a,aur,b,β,e,f,ff²,l,r¹ vg syr-s,p,pal copsa,bo arm geo Or-lat Eus NA28 ‖ καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες A D E F G H K M P S U Y Γ Δ Λ Ψ Ω 053 ƒ¹³ 2 28 33 118 157 892 1009 1010 1079 1195 1216 1230 1241 1242 1344 1424 1546 1582c 2148 2174 𝔐 Lect-m it-(e),d,q syr-h Diatess-a,n,t TR RP ‖ καὶ οἱ ποιμένες 579 1365 ‖ lac 𝔓⁴⁵ 𝔓⁷⁵ C N Q T Π

This variant was footnoted with a [D] rating of certainty in the UBS3, and now in the UBS5 is not footnoted at all.

The Byzantine text presents an odd style, which the UBS commentary says is Lukan.  The biggest difficulty with the Byz reading is the word και.  Most of the translations from the Byz text translate και as “that,” (a Semitism?) while the KJV did not translate it at all.  The other major difference is the addition of οι ανθρωποι.  The main translations treat οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες as a pleonasm and translate it simply as “the shepherds.”  This latter is indeed Lukan style.  But και as “that,” not so much Lukan style.  I’ve seen it in John.

First the UBS text and translation:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, οἱ ποιμένες ἐλάλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους

DRP: And it came about that when the angels had departed from them into heaven, the shepherds were saying to one another

Now the Byz text and some translations thereof:

Καὶ ἐγένετο, ὡς ἀπῆλθον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι, καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ποιμένες εἶπον πρὸς ἀλλήλους

MLV: And it happened, as the messengers went away from them into heaven, and the men, the shepherds, said to one another,

ALT: And it happened, when the angels departed from them into heaven, that the men, the shepherds, said to one another

Geneva: And it came to passe whe the Angels were gone away from them into heauen, that the shepheards sayde one to another,

EMTV: So it was, when the angels had departed from them into heaven, that the shepherds said to one another,

KJV: And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another,

Download the Luke document containing this data in a footnote.

Unqualified Bible Translators

An example of the work of unqualified Bible translators

There are many examples of “crankish” individual translations done by persons reputedly not qualified to translate the Bible these days, but they are not that dangerous, since very few people will read them. What are more dangerous are translations that are respected and reputed to be scholarly, such that many people will read them and trust them, but they are very badly translated. Take the following example.  (First a correct translation, then the wrong ones.)

1 Timothy 3:2- Δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἐπίσκοπον ἀνεπίληπτον εἶναι, μιᾶϛ γυναικὸϛ ἄνδρα
Therefore an overseer must be… the husband of one wife (ESV)

NRSV: Now a bishop must be … married only once

NABRE: Therefore, a bishop must be… married only once

These did not translate ανηρ, did not translate γυνη, and they added a word “married” that is not there. Three errors already. Then also, there are errors of wrongly allowed implication, implying: A Bishop is qualified if married to a horse, as long as married only once. A Bishop is qualified if married to the same gender as himself, as long as married only once. A bishop is qualified if a female, as long as married only once.

CEB: They should be faithful to their spouse
CEV: That’s why officials must… be faithful in marriage.

Whoever translated these 4 above, either do not know what the words ανηρ and γυνη mean, or, much worse, blatantly changed the word in order to help foster acceptance of their belief that a female can be a bishop / overseer / pastor, something contradicted clearly in many other scriptures. Or acceptance that a homosexual can be a bishop / overseer / pastor, something contradicted clearly in many other scriptures. But the apostle says the subject is a MALE human, who has a FEMALE human mate.

So, such translations, which have the reputation of being scholarly, and respected, are far more dangerous than “crankish” individual translations done by unrecognized, unrespected persons, since many people will actually read the NRSV and NAB and trust them.

I declare without reservation, that those persons who produced the above renderings in the NRSV and NAB translations, are NOT QUALIFIED to translate the holy Word of God. It is GOD’S word, which means HE decides who is qualified. I can assure you that anyone who promotes or allows the belief that a female can be a bishop / overseer / pastor in His church, Does Not have the approval of God, neither anyone who promotes or allows the belief that a homosexual can be a bishop / overseer / pastor.  Jesus’ apostles very clearly contradicted these notions in the scriptures. If you have studied the Bible on these topics, you KNOW FULL WELL that this is true. Do not lie against the truth.

There are several Bible translations so called, that I urge you to throw in the garbage if you have them: the NRSV and permutations, the NAB and permutations, the Message, the CEV, and CEB, and the New World Translation.

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Global Warming, Climate Change

Global Warming & Climate Change

2 Peter 3:7-13:

⁷and the present heavens and earth by the same word are reserved for fire, kept until the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly people.
⁸But this one thing must not escape you, beloved, that with the Lord, one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day. ⁹The Lord of that promise is not loitering, as some consider loitering. Instead, he is being very patient toward us, not wanting anyone to perish, but rather all to come to repentance. ¹⁰But the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar, and the elements be dissolved by burning, and the earth and the works in it will be completely burned up.
¹¹Since all these things are being dissolved, what kind of people ought you to be, in holy ways of life, and godliness, ¹²looking forward to and cheering on the arrival of the day of God, by which it is all melted, the heavens to be dissolved by fire and the elements by burning up? ¹³And we are looking forward, according to his promise, to a new heaven and a new earth, in which righteousness is at home.
2 Peter 3:7-13, David Robert Palmer translation, Byzantine edition.

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Apocalypse Not in the Past

There are things in the book of Revelation in the Bible, that did not make sense until the present modern times.  For example, when the two witnesses are killed in Jerusalem, it says the whole world, every tribe, language and nation, watches them as they get up again.  That is only possible with modern television satellites and Internet.  And even the way they celebrate, by “sending gifts” to one another all around the world, portends Amazon.com and the Internet, and sending gifts by mail.

Revelation 11:8-10:

“⁸And their corpses lie on the boulevard of the great city which is spiritually named Sodom  and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.  ⁹And from peoples and tribes and languages and nations they see their corpses for three and a half days.  And they are not allowing their corpses to be placed in a grave.  ¹⁰And those dwelling on the earth rejoice over them, and celebrate, and will send gifts  to one another.  For these two prophets had tormented those dwelling on the earth.”

And speaking of the Internet and satellites, the scenario of the Beast in Revelation chapter 13 controlling the ability of everyone on the planet to buy or sell, would not be possible in the ancient world, or even 40 years ago.  This is only possible with the Internet and satellites, and requires every tribesman in the Congo or Indonesia to be “connected” and “wired.”  No wonder that so called “charitable endeavors” try to get everyone in Africa onto electricity.  That combined with outlawing cash, on the pretext that only criminals use cash.

Majuscule Uncial Robinson-Pierpont GNT

Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Greek New Testament in Majuscule / Uncial script

I have created and uploaded an edition of the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Greek New Testament, Byzantine Textform, in all-majuscule letters (some say uncial letters).  This document is available for download in both “.docx” format and in PDF.  The PDF is 1.7 MB, 567 pages.

This document was created by David Robert Palmer to be a public domain document, in both “.docx” format and in PDF.  The Robinson-Pierpont Greek text is also free to use without permission.  For this document, I give you permission to to copy, paste, and / or re-format as you wish.  Only except that these documents are “locked” against changes in order to preserve the original formatting, and I ask that you leave them locked.  This means that if you want to edit or re-format the Microsoft® Word 2007 “.docx” document of the RP majuscule text, you can do so, but you will have to first “save as” a copy to your hard drive under another file name; in which copy you can then make changes.  Proper display of the “.docx” document may require that you install the KoineGreek.ttf font from Alan Bunning; the documents contain a download link for that font on the cover page.  This font was chosen because it renders the Greek majuscule / uncial letter Sigma as C, which is what is found in the early Greek New Testament manuscripts.  Be advised that the KoineGreek.ttf font renders a regular lower case letter into a capital Greek letter automatically.  If you wish to use some other font, you can do that, but you will probably first have to convert the base letters to upper case.

Nomina Sacra are used for the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and vocative of κυριος, and the nom., acc. gen., dat. of θεος, Ἰησους, χριστος, and πνευμα..  It is possible that when the find/replace operations for these NS were conducted, some other word was accidentally changed which happened to contain these words.  This happened with vocative κυριε for example, but I believe I found them all and corrected them.

Download links (free) for the two documents: The PDF of the 2017 RP uncial text.  The Microsoft® Word 2007 “.docx” file of the Robinson-Pierpont majuscule text.

Robinson-Pierpont Greek New Testament, Byzantine textform in Uncial / Majuscule script

Robinson-Pierpont GNT in Majuscule

 

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Majuscule Epistle of Jude

The Epistle of Jude in Majuscule

I have just created and uploaded the Epistle of Jude in majuscule font, similar to what New Testament manuscripts looked like in the 3rd century.  The Greek New Testament text is the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 text.  Thanks to Alan Bunning for the KoineGreek majuscule font.

If you are particularly interested in the Epistle of Jude, see also my Swanson-style chart of the Epistle of Jude in 62 manuscripts and 12 GNT editions.

Epistle of Jude in majuscule

The Epistle of Jude in majuscule

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Robinson-Pierpont 2017 GNT

The 2017 edition of the Robinson-Pierpont Greek New Testament

I have completed and uploaded a PDF of the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 edition of “The New Testament in the Original Greek, Byzantine Text Form.”  I compiled it from raw text CCAT files sent to me by its author, Maurice A. Robinson, PhD. The PDF is now 622 pages, 13 MB in size.

The 2017 edition has very few, and minor, text changes from the 2005 version, including one corrected error of reading (based on misinterpretation of Hoskier’s data) at Rev 2:17 (now omit φαγειν) and also a few places where a marginal reading has now become the main text and vice versa.  Mainly it has updates and corrections in capitalization, accentuation, and punctuation, plus some previously missing iota subscripts.

This PDF is designed to default to open with the bookmarks panel, or links bar, showing on the left, so that you can click on the name of a book or heading and it takes you there like an Internet link. If you are using a combination of device and software app in which this is not true, there may be an option in the “view” menu by which you may choose to view these bookmarks or links under, for example, “navigation panels.”

This PDF was designed to enable you to copy and paste from it, and also to print it.  Download the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 GNT.  Also, you can search in it for a verse reference, e.g., Lk 4:7.

If rather than the edition with all the variants you want a minimal version, you can download an edition of the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 GNT without the variants and without the Appendix here.  This document is 403 pages rather than 639, and its size is 9 MB rather than 12 MB.  Also available, for textual criticism experimentation, is an all-majuscule / uncial edition.  That was the PDF link; you can also download a Microsoft Word “.docx” edition of the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Greek New Testament in all majuscule.

Continuous-text MSS by century

You can also download editions of some of my Greek-English documents, but with the Robinson-Pierpont Greek text, and the English translation thereof.  You can download them right here as well.  Completed are: Gospel of John, Epistle of James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John , Jude and Revelation.

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Greek Definite Article

Acts 8:5

Here is a Greek textual variant that should demonstrate to beginners in NT Greek that maybe they don’t know how to interpret the definite article.

The Textus Receptus and the Robinson-Pierpont Greek texts both read εις πολιν της Σαμαρειας, without the definite article την present before πολιν, “city.”  Here are some translations from the Textus Receptus:

KJV

Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto them.

NKJV

Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria and preached Christ to them.

MEV

Philip went down to the city of Samaria and preached Christ to them.

 

The UBS / NA text reads, εις την πολιν της Σαμαρειας, with the definite article την present before “city.”

Here are some translations reputedly from the UBS text:

NIV, TNIV

Philip went down to a city in Samaria and proclaimed the Messiah there.

RSV

Philip went down to a city of Samaria, and proclaimed to them the Christ.

HCSB

Philip went down to a city in Samaria and proclaimed the Messiah to them.

CEB

Philip went down to a city in Samaria and began to preach Christ to them.

CJB

Now Philip went down to a city in Shomron and was proclaiming the Messiah to them;

NABRE

Thus Philip went down to [the] city of Samaria and proclaimed the Messiah to them.

NASB

Philip went down to the city of Samaria and began proclaiming Christ to them.

ESV

Philip went down to the city of Samaria and proclaimed to them the Christ.

NRSV

Philip went down to the city of Samaria and proclaimed the Messiah to them.

GNT

Philip went to the principal city in Samaria and preached the Messiah to the people there.

MOUNCE

Philip went down to the main city of Samaria and began proclaiming to them the Christ.

NET

Philip went down to the main city of Samaria and began proclaiming the Christ to them.

πολις της Σαμαρειας, for the city of Samaria had been utterly destroyed by Hyrcanus, and the city built by Herod on its site was called Σεβαστη, that is, Augusta, in honour of Augustus. Samaria comprised the tract of country formerly occupied by the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, west of Jordan, lying between Judea and Galilee, beginning, says Josephus, at Ginea in the great plain, and ending at the toparchy of Acrabateni.

The manuscripts:
txt πολιν C D E H P Ψ 049 056 33 1611 1739 1891 cop-sa,bo,meg chrys TR RP την πολιν 𝔓⁷⁴ ℵ A B 1175 SBL [NA28] {C} lac 𝔓⁴⁵ L